1 Literate Programming

There is Jupyter, it is similar to GNU Emacs org-mode, but has no support for more than one programming language in one file. It's used for educational purposes a lot and for researching of course. Normally a Jupyter notebook is the input for an engineer who somehow makes it into a production application adding wrappers and context.

Most solutions are one-language focused. GNU Emacs org-mode is not.

2 Data science

Robert Vesco writes about the fruitful combination of GNU Emacs and data science; it's from 2015, but still very valid where it concerns org-mode.

3 Reproducable Research

Read Karl Broman and Sandve for more information on this subject.

Victoria Stodden is one of the frontrunners for research which others can reproduce. She wrote about the various stages of research.

In the Netherlands Daniƫl Lakens is doing similar work, but with a narrower goal: fix psychological research.